Goat Farming
Goat is known as ‘Poor man’s cow’ in India and is a very important component in dry land farming system. Marginal or undulating lands unsuitable for other types of animals like cow or buffalo, goat is the best alternative. With very low investments goat rearing can be made in to a profitable venture for small and marginal farmers.


Who can start this?
  • Small and marginal farmers
  • Landless labourers
  • Availability of common grazing lands

Reasons to start

  • Low capital investment and quick return
  • Simple and small shed is enough
  • Profitable under stall fed condition.
  • High prolific rate of goats
  • Year around job
  • meat is lean & has low fats and is liked by all people
  • Can be sold and encashed anytime

Which Breed is Right for You?


Jamunapari
  • Fairly tall animal
  • Has a strongly arched Roman nose and long pendulous ears which are about 12 inches long in adult Jamunapari.
  • Buck weighs about 65-85 kgs and does weighs about 45-60 kgs
  • one kid per kidding
  • six months kid weighs about 15 kg
  • Milk production is about 2-2.5 lit/day.

http://www.indg.in/agriculture/on-and-off-farm-enterprises/resolveUid/512c90b31f9991cecf4fa908554adba4/

Tellichery

  • Goat are in white, brown and black colors
  • Kidding size is 2-3 kids
  • Buck weighs about 40-50 kgs and does weighs about 30 kgs

http://www.indg.in/agriculture/on-and-off-farm-enterprises/resolveUid/c84179724742a90ae4d8f3f6668f056d/

Boer

  • Rearing for meat all over the world
  • Has a fast growth rate
  • Buck weighs about 110-135 kgs and does weighs about 90-100 kgs
  • Kids weighs about 20-30 kgs at 90 days of age

http://www.indg.in/agriculture/on-and-off-farm-enterprises/resolveUid/3963b3484867067fce8bde2d81b145c0/

Selection of goats for breeding


Does
  • should have kidding size of 2- 3 kids
  • should mature at 6- 9 months

Bucks

  • Tall with broad chest and slender body
  • matures at age of 9- 12 months
  • Select kids with good body weight at 6 months of age
  • select from dam of 2- 3 kidding size

 

Feeding management

  • Grazing along with concentrate feeding gives maximum growth rate
  • Feeding protein rich green fodder such as acacia, leucerne and cassava and are important sources of dietary nitrogen.
  • Farmers can cultivate agathi, subabul and glaricidia trees along the border of the farm and used as green fodder
  • Fodders and trees cultivated in one acre of land is enough to feed 15-30 goats
  • Concentrate feed can be prepared as follows.

Ingredients

Kid ration

Growing Ration

Lactating Goat Ration

Pregnant goat Ration

Maize

37

15

52

35

Pulses

15

37

---

---

Oil Cakes

25

10

8

20

Wheat Bran

20

35

37

42

Mineral Mixture

2.5

2

2

2

Common salt

0.5

1

1

1

Total

100

100

100

100

 

 

 

 

 

  • Kids should be provided with 50- 100 gms of concentrate for first 10 weeks.
  • For growing ones concentrates should be provided 100 -150 gm daily for 3-10 months.
  • For pregnant goat concentrates maybe given upto 200 gm daily.
  • Milch goats producing 1 kg milk are provided 300 gms of concentrate daily
  • Mineral blocks with rich copper (950-1250 ppm) should be provided in the goat stalls.

    http://www.indg.in/agriculture/on-and-off-farm-enterprises/resolveUid/782c36b46417dda4cf2a9a49065e8f33/

 

Breeding Management


For a profitable goat farming there should be 3 kidding for 2 years
  • Goats with faster growth rate and larger size should be used for breeding.
  • Does of one year of age should be used for breeding
  • Does should bred after 3 months of kidding then only there will be 3 kidding for 2 years.
  • Goats come into heat or estrus approximately every 18 to 21 days and the heat will last for 24-72 hours.
  • Does in heat become vocal and some bleat very loudly as if in pain. Constant tail wagging from side to side is another sign of heat. In addition, the vulva will appear slightly swollen and reddened and the area around the tail may look wet and dirty because of vaginal discharge. There is decreased appetite and an increased frequency of urination. Doe in heat may mount another doe as if she were a buck or let another doe mount her.
  • Does can be bred 12-18 hours after the starting the estrus symptoms
  • In some does the estrous period will last for 2-3 days. So they should bred again in the next day.
  • Gestation period is approximately 145-150 days, but up to one week either way is fairly common. Better to be prepared well in advance.

 

Deworming

  • Before breeding the doe should be dewormed. Those goats affected with worm infestation are lean and dull
  • Kids should be dewormed at one month of age. The life cycle of worms is three weeks, so de-worming again at two months of age is recommended
  • Pregnant does should be dewormed 2-3 weeks before kidding.
  • Does in early pregnancy (upto 2 months) should not be dewormed to avoid abortion.

Vaccinations

  • Kids should be given first dose of Enterotoxaemia and Tetanus vaccination at 8 weeks of age and again at 12 weeks of age..
  • Does should be given Enterotoxaemia and Tetanus vaccination 4-6 weeks before breeding season and 4-6 weeks before kidding.
  • Bucks should be vaccinated with Enterotoxaemia and Tetanus once in a year

Housing for goats


1. Deep litter system
  • A small shed with good cross ventilation is enough to keep a small herd.
  • Litter height should be atleat 6cms.
  • Litter material maybe of sawdust, paddy husk and groundnut shell.
  • The litter material has to be turned periodically to remove the foul odour in the pen.
  • Litter material should be replaced once in every 2 weeks.
  • Each goat requires about 15 sq.ft area.
  • care should be taken to reduce the external parasitic infestation.
  • An adult goat produces about a tonne of manure in a year.

http://www.indg.in/agriculture/on-and-off-farm-enterprises/resolveUid/a6f548bec71594de8ef96b0c4d95a8a3/
2. Raised platform system

  • wooden plank or wire mesh is placed about 3-4 ft from the ground level
  • External parasitic infestation is usually less in this method

    http://www.indg.in/agriculture/on-and-off-farm-enterprises/resolveUid/69bd04d00ab5c96c35e064b84a32acce/http://www.indg.in/agriculture/on-and-off-farm-enterprises/resolveUid/5182de2ebd4639d4db28519bec5ec6a4/

    http://www.indg.in/agriculture/on-and-off-farm-enterprises/resolveUid/9c8d8ad31c3c416cbb7b8bb6ca561229/

 

Raising methods


1. Semi intensive system
  • Places where less grazing lands, goats can be fed intensively with green fodders and concentrates after grazing

2. Intensive system

  • Goats are fed with green fodder and concentrates in the shed.
  • No grazing
  • house maybe of deep litter system or raised platform system

 

Goat Insurance

  • Goats can be insured from 4 months of age through General Insurance companies
  • Insurance can be claimed if death due to accident or diseases.

Goat farms in India