Milk


Q.1 :

How can we keep the milk for longer period?

A :

The milk should be stored at 4°C within 2 hr of milking to keep it for longer period.


Q.2 :

Can any chemicals are used to extend the shelf life of milk?

A :

Legally no chemicals are allowed as preservative in milk.


Q.3 :

What is the use of lactometer?

A :

It is used to measure specific gravity of milk. It can also give an idea regarding adulteration of milk with water.


Q.4 :

Is dairy processing is profitable business?

A :

Yes, it can be more revenue churner on the production of value added milk products.


Q.5 :

Which dairy products are considered as more profitable?

A :

Curd, lassi, flavoured milk, ice cream etc.


Q.6 :

Can we utilize paneer whey in some useful manner?

A :

Yes, whey can be used for the preparation of whey drink even at cottage level.


Q.7 :

Is there any agency which provide loan for setting up of dairy plant?

A :

Yes, nationalized banks as well as other financial institutions provide loans for it.


Q.8 :

Is there any subsidy is also provided on the setting up of dairy plant?

A :

Yes, the amount of subsidy varies with the conditions.


Q.9 :

What are the income tax benefits on income from dairy plant?

A :

Presently, Govt. is providing tax holidays on dairy plant business.


Q.10 :

What is the standard of cow milk in Punjab?

A :

Minimum 4.0% milk fat and 8.5% solids not fat (SNF)


Q.11 :

What is the synthetic milk?

A :

It is the mixture of various ingredients such as urea, detergent etc. which looks like milk but no other property matches with milk.


Q.12 :

Can synthetic milk be identified at home level also?

A :

Yes, synthetic milk when rubbed between fingers give soapy feeling and on boiling smells like soap.


Q.13 :

What are the common adulterants in milk?

A :

Carbonates & bicarbonates to decrease acidity of milk, formalin, boric acid & hydrogen peroxide as preservative in milk, salt, sugar and starch to increase SNF and viscosity of milk


Q.14 :

Can you identify adulteration of milk at home also?

A :

Yes, NDDB through Punjab Dairy Development Board is marketing a kit which can check 50 samples worth appx. Rs100/-. This kit is handy and can be used easily at home level.


Q.15 :

Whether paneer and cheese are same or different?

A :

NO, both of them are totally different. Paneer is prepared with the use of acid such as citric acid, tartaric acid etc whereas cheese is prepared with enzyme rennet.


Q.16 :

What is mozzarella cheese? Can it be prepared at home level also?

A :

Mozzarella cheese is fresh cheese also called as pizza cheese. Yes, it can be easily prepared at home level also.


Q.17 :

Whether milk is an ideal food?

A :

It is almost ideal food however, it is deficient in Vitamin C, Iron etc.


Q.18 :

Can milk be digested by all easily?

A :

Yes, only those have lactose intolerance can not digest.


Q.19 :

Can we drink pasteurized milk directly without boiling?

A :

Yes, if the pasteurized milk packet is not leaky and from authenticated source can be taken directly without boiling.


Q.20 :

Is it necessary to keep the pasteurized milk packets in refrigeration?

A :

Yes, it should be kept at temperature below 4oC till it is consumed.


Q.21 :

What is the pasteurization temperature of milk?

A :

It is 63oC for 30 min known as LTLT method and 72oC for 15 sec in HTST method.


Q.22 :

Can we keep UHT milk packaged in tetra pack without refrigeration?

A :

Yes, we can keep this milk packet at room temperature till seal is not broken, after seal is broken keep it in refrigerator and consume with in 24 hr


Q.23 :

Is cream available on small dairies or halwai shop are safe for direct servings?

A :

No, always consume pasteurized cream for direct consumption as well as for any dish preparation, however it can be used for ghee preparations.


Q.24 :

What is toned milk?

A :

Toned milk should have minimum 3.0% milk fat and 8.5% SNF


Q.25 :

What do you mean by standardized milk?

A :

It is market milk having a 4.5% milk fat and 8.5% SNF content.


Q.26 :

Is 1lt of milk weighs 1 kg?

A :

No, One lt of cow milk weighs around 1.028-1.030 kg and buffalo milk weighs around 1.030-1.032 kg


Q.27 :

Is paneer consumption is good for health?

A :

Paneer is good for health. It is rich in proteins. It is also safe for the diabetic patient because it does not contain sugar.


Q.28 :

What is the common packaging material for packaging of butter?

A :

Parchment paper is used for packaging of butter.


Q.29 :

What is the shelf life of ghee?

A :

Ghee can be safely stored at cool place away from sunlight for six months.

 

Meat


Q.1 :

Whether ramp is required during loading and unloading of animals from the truck?

A :

Yes. To avoid fracture of bones, injuries etc it is mandatory to use ramp during loading and unloading of animals from truck.


Q.2 :

Whether ante-mortem inspection is required when animals are in the farm?

A :

Yes. Ante-mortem inspection requires when animals are in the farms, during and after transportation, in the lairage and just before slaughter.


Q.3 :

Is it necessary to keep fasting of the animals before slaughter?

A :

Yes. Animals/birds should be kept on fasting from afternoon prior to slaughter next day morning. But they should provide plenty of fresh water during fasting.


Q.4 :

Why fasting should be done to meat animals?

A :

Fasting empties the gastro-intestinal tracts induces better bleeding, reduces microbial load, helps in good quality of meat.


Q.5 :

Can use of gourds for forward movement affect meat quality?

A :

Yes. Use of gourds or any electrical device for forwarding the animals during slaughter can affect meat quality.


Q.6 :

Whether animal can be slaughtered in front of other animals?

A :

No, other animals may be excited and feared affecting meat quality.


Q.7 :

Why stunning should be done during slaughtering the animals?

A :

This induces unconsciousness of the animal so that unnecessary struggling is avoided.


Q.8 :

How stunning helps to improve meat quality?

A :

Stunning induces better bleeding, reduces microbial load, helps in tenderization of meat.


Q.9 :

What precaution should be taken while removing the skin of the animal?

A :

The trained flayer is required to obtain better quality skin by following scientific methods of flaying.


Q.10 :

Can skins be thrown on the slaughter floor?

A :

No, skin should be collected in chute/wheel barrow immediately to the hide and skin section of the slaughterhouse.


Q.11 :

How skins and hides can be preserved?

A :

The fresh skins and hides are trimmed off meat and fat tissues from the flesh side and either dry curing or wet curing is followed for preservation.


Q.12 :

How blood, inedible viscera, condemned parts and carcasses can be used?

A :

Blood and inedible viscera can be profitably used by preparation of blood meal, carcass meal, meat meal, meat-cum-bone meal and be recycled as livestock feed.


Q.13 :

Whether viscera and skin can be kept in the same room along with meat?

A :

No, viscera and skin should be kept in separate room and maintain temperature at 7°C.


Q.14 :

After bleeding whether carcass needs hanging for removal of skin and viscera?

A :

Yes. When carcass is hanging that make easier to remove skin and viscera and microbial quality of meat will also improve.


Q.15 :

Whether washing is necessary after removal of skin and viscera?

A :

Yes. Washing with potable water should be given after removal of skin and viscera


Q.16 :

Which type of floor is required for slaughtering of animals?

A :

Non-slippery, non-absorbable concrete floor is required for slaughtering of animals.


Q.17 :

Whether wooden structure can be used for cutting of meat?

A :

No. Because wooden structure cannot be cleaned and dried properly after cutting and also there is a chance to come wooden piece along with meat.


Q.18 :

Which type of cutting board is required for cutting meat in to pieces?

A :

Thick cutting board made up of PVC available in the market should be used for meat cutting.


Q.19 :

Whether black or any coloured packaging films can be used for packaging of meat and meat products?

A :

No. Always use colouless polyethylene (LDPE/HDPE) bags for packaging of meat and meat products


Q.20 :

How many days raw meat can be kept in refrigeration (4°C) cabinet

A :

Raw meat can be kept maximum up to 7 days in refrigeration (4°C) cabinet (except pork) before preparation.


Q.21 :

How many days chicken curry can be kept in a refrigerator?

A :

Chicken curry can be kept for three days in a refrigerator.


Q.22 :

How people can get license for meat processing plant?

A :

You need to give application to Food Safety and Standards Authority of India, New Delhi, Telefax- 011-24360934-36.


Q.23 :

What are meat nuggets and how these are prepared?

A :

Meat nuggests are emulsion based meat product prepared by muxung minced meat and all te recipes ingredients filled in moulds, steam cooked and sliced in the shape of nuggets.


Q.24 :

What are meat sausages?

A :

Minced meat alsong with all other ingredients are filled in the casings ( prepared from intestines/synthetic) and steam cooked or smoked etc.


Q.25 :

What is the shelf life of these processed meat products?

A :

These products can be kept in the refigerator for 2 weeks whereas in deep freezer ( -18°C) for 3-6 months. Their shelf life can be further enhanced with vacuum/modified atmosphere packaging.


Q.26 :

What are the traditional meat products?

A :

Tandoori chicken, shami kabab, seekh kababs etc.

 

Eggs


Q.1 :

What are the different grades of eggs?

A :

There are 4 grades (extra large, large, medium and small) as per BIS grading of eggs.


Q.2 :

Should eggs be cleaned?

A :

Yes, eggs should be cleaned by dry cleaning method or using egg washing machine, but the difference in temperature of egg wash water and egg should not be more than 10oC.


Q.3 :

Why eggs are required to be cleaned?

A :

This is done to remove any dirt, dung, or dirty material adhered on the surface of eggs to increase the esthetic sense and to decrease microbial load .


Q.4 :

Why cleaned eggs are sprayed with egg coating oil?

A :

There is opening of egg pores after cleaning giving chance for entry of microorganism into the egg contents. Egg pores are sealed by spraying with egg coating oil. The shelf life of eggs is extended.


Q.5 :

How soiled eggs should be cleaned?

A :

Soiled eggs can be cleaned with sand paper or by washing with chlorinated water but chlorine concentration should not be more than 50 mg per lit of water.


Q.6 :

How many times in a day egg need to be collected from laying house?

A :

Eggs should be collected at least 4-5 times during summer and 3-4 times during winter periods.


Q.7 :

How lime water treatment to be given for shell eggs preservation.

A :

Boil 1 lit water; add 1kg lime to it. Bring the solution to room temperature. Add 5 lit cold water and 225g sodium chloride to it. Allow the mixture to settle down. Decant the solution. In the clear fluid eggs are immersed for 16-18 hours.


Q.8 :

How many days’ eggs can be kept after lime treatment?

A :

These eggs can be stored for 3-4 weeks.


Q.9 :

What is thermostabilization?

A :

Immersing of eggs in heated water at 49°C for 35 min or 54°C for 15min, or 56°C for 10min or 60°C for 5 min to stabilize the thick albumin.


Q.10 :

What is flash heat treatment?

A :

Brief immersion of shell eggs into hot water (71°C) to destroys bacteria present on the egg shell surface and also coagulate thin albumin immediately beneath the shell membrane and seals the shell internally.


Q.11 :

Which oil is used for coating of shell eggs?

A :

Light mineral oils, liquid paraffin and vegetables oils mixed with 0.0125% BHT can be used for coating of shell eggs. Oil use for coating should be colourless and odourless.