Mastitis in dairy animals


Q.1 :

What is mastitis?

A :

Mastitis is inflammation of udder/ mammary gland characterized by change in milk.


Q.2 :

What should I do after onset of Mastitis?

A :

If it is possible, milk sample for culture sensitivity test (CST) (to know the sensitive antibiotics) should be submitted before starting treatment. Broad spectrum antibiotic and supportive treatment with consultation of veterinarian should be given to the animal. If antibiotics are already being given to the animal, the milk sample should be submitted 4 days after end of therapy.


Q.3 :

How should I take the milk sample for testing to the laboratory?

A :

You should collect the milk sample in sterilized test tubes or in sterilized vials. The test tube should be labeled appropriately. At least 5 ml of milk sample should be submitted to the laboratory as early as possible. If delay is expected, samples should be kept in ice-container. Udder should be cleaned and soaked with neat piece of cloth. Teat orifice should aseptically be cleaned. Before taking sample in test tube, first few strippings (1-2 strippings) should be discarded.


Q.4 :

What should I do to avoid infection during dry period?

A :

As there is no specific dry cow therapy available in India, one should take care of the managemental aspects. If prevalence of infection in the herd is high, all the animals at drying- off should be injected with Intra-mammary infusions.


Q.5 :

What should I do to avoid recurrence of mastitis?

A :

Individual animal should be treated and her udder immunity enhanced by using mineral mixture of standard quality, cleaning of udder before milking, milking of infected teat at the end and teat dipping after milking.. Milk samples should be tested regularly after 15 days using SLS paddle test. The positive animal’s milk samples should be tested for CST in the laboratory. Treatment of sub-clinical case is more desirable.


Q.6 :

Why does the swelling of udder occur just after calving while there was no sign during late pregnancy?

A :

There are chances of subclinical mastitis at drying-off and during dry period. This infection gets flared-up after parturition due to certain stress factors.


Q.7 :

What is the treatment of udder/teat fibrosis?

A :

Udder/ teat fibrosis occurs as a result of chronic infection. Treatment of udder and teat fibrosis in that particular lactation can result into resolution to some extent, but chances of recovery may be expected in the next lactation when new lacteal tissue formation will ensue.


Q.8 :

There is problem of warts over the teat of animals. How to treat it?

A :

Please, Consult nearest available qualified veterinarian for treatment.


Q.9 :

I have a buffalo which has developed sores at the base of teat since one month. Milk yield is normal. Advise me appropriate treatment.

A :

This problem is usually chronic running for many months. The best treatment for this is to apply antiseptic solutions like Betadine/Povidine regularly. If no recovery occurs apply a powder mixed in equal parts containing boric acid, kaolin and zinc oxide once daily. The healing in such cases is slow and takes 3-4 weeks. Do not use antibiotics, which will increases the cost of treatment only.


Q.10 :

What are the mastitis control measures?

A :

The important features of a successful mastitis control programme are:

  •  Regular testing of animals for subclinical mastitis
  •  Adopt hygiene measures
  • Post-milking teat dipping be adopted 
  • Follow Dry cow therapy 
  • Increase udder resistance to mastitis

Q.11 :

What is Post-milking teat dipping?

A :

The teats of all the lactating cows and dry cows (during first 10-14 days of dry period) are dipped regularly after every milking in a germicidal solution. The recommended teat dips are

  1. Iodine (0.5%) solution 6 parts + Glycerine 1 part
  2. Chlorhexidine (0.5%) solution 1 Litre + Glycerine 60 ml

The iodine teat dip is the best as it treats various types of teat lesions and injuries also.

 

Mineral deficiency


Q.1 :

What is Hematuria?.

A :

It is the presence of blood in urine and can be due to many reasons like phosphorus deficiency, Babesia infection, etc.


Q.2 :

What is  leucoderma ?

A :

It is associated with copper deficiency.


Q.3 :

What are the clinical signs of copper deficiency?

A :

The clinical signs are as follows:

  1. Unthriftiness
  2. Change in hair colour or leucoderma
  3. Anaemia
  4. Chronic diarrhoea
  5. Chronic lameness
  6. Neonatal ataxia

Q.4 :

How we can diagnose and treat the copper deficiency?

A :

We can diagnose the copper deficiency by low serum and hepatic copper concentration and response to treatment. Copper deficiency can be treated by oral administration of copper sulphate or inj. copper glycnate . Consult any nearest available veterinarian for this purpose.


Q.5 :

My cow calved last night and is now unable to get up.

A :

Many times high yielder cows suffer from milk fever after parturition which is due to calcium deficiency. Following calcium treatment, there is quick recovery.


Q.6 :

What is the management of hyperthermia?

A :

  • Give bath to the animals (4-5 times/day) during summer.
  • Feed during early hours of the day
  • Contact a qualified veterinarian for the treatment, if infections are suspected

Hyperthermia in farm animals


Q.1 :

What are the common causes of high body temperature (hyperthermia) in cattle during summer season?

A :

  • Infectious diseases like haemorrhagic septicaemia, foot and mouth disease and black quarter etc.
  • Haemoprotozoan diseases like Anaplasmosis, Theileriosis and Babesiosis besides high environmental temperature are common causes of high rise in body temperature during summer season.  

Q.2 :

What are the clinical signs of hyperthermia?

A :

  • High fever (1050-1070F)
  • Panting
  • Marked decrease in appetite
  • Loss of milk yield
  • Temperature is normal in early hours of the day but as the day temperature rises body temperature of animal also increases.

 

Flourosis in dairy animals


Q.1 :

Does excess fluoride is also harmful for animals?

A :

Yes. Excess fluoride intake can produce harmful effects in animals also, though clinical signs may be absent in mild cases. Flourosis is common in animals reared in district Mansa, Bathinda, Ferozpur and Sangrur.


Q.2 :

What are different clinical signs of fluorosis?

A :

Clinical signs of fluorosis include changes in teeth and bones. Teeth become brown-blackish and loose. Bones become weak and prone to fracture. The animal shows weakness, lameness, reduced appetite and weight loss.


Q.3 :

What are different sources of excess fluoride for animals?

A :

Water containing excessive fluoride concentration is the major source. Poor quality mineral mixture or dust coming out from brick kilns or other industry are other sources.


Q.4 :

Is fluorosis fully curable?

A :

No. Changes in bone and teeth are irreversible and can not be fully cured. However, animals sufferings can be reduced after treatment.


Q.5 :

How fluorosis can be prevented or treated?

A :

Remove sources of excess fluoride. Do not give deep bore well water; rather give water from ponds (surface water). Give calcium carbonate or good quality mineral mixture after consulting the veterinarian.


 

Impaction in dairy animals


Q.1 :

Why impaction is very much prevalent in dairy animals?

A :

It is due to lack of green fodder in diet or giving excess Jowar/maize straw(Kutti). Ingestion of sharp metallic foreign bodies in cattle and buffalo may also be responsible.


Q.2 :

What should be done to avoid impaction in cattle and buffaloes?

A :

Feed green fodder mixed in Kutti throughout the year. Avoid access of animals to nails, needles, wires and sharp farm equipment parts etc.


Q.3 :

What is first aid before reaching hospital?

A :

Tie and confine the animal to one place. Make available ample of drinking water throughout the day and seek the advice of veterinarian as soon as possible.


 

Lameness in dairy animals


Q.1 :

Whether there is any affect on reproduction/fertility?

A :

Yes, due to pain animal does not express signs of heat. It is related with reproduction failure.


Q.2 :

How farmers can control/ check lameness?

A :

  • Always undertake hoof trimming every six months.
  • Always feed mineral mixture regularly.
  • Take the help of a qualified veterinary doctor if problem is severe/clinical.
  • Contact  your nearest Veterinary Doctor if the problem is consistent or persistant.

 

Deworming and vaccination


Q.1 :

What are the common diseases prevalent in Punjab against which we should go for vaccination?

A :

Animals should be vaccinated for Foot and Mouth disease (FMD), Haemorrhagic Septicaemia (H S), Black Quarter(BQ) and brucellosis. Consult the veterinarian for this purpose regularly.


Q.2 :

Precautions to be taken while vaccinating the animals?

A :

Vaccines should be procured from reliable source. Cold chain should be maintained from purchase of vaccine till its administration. Don’t put vaccine in direct heat and sunlight.


Q.3 :

At what age we should start deworming in our animals.

A :

At the age of < 1 month we should start deworming.


 

Miscellaneous


Q.1 :

There is serious problem of ticks in our animals. How to control it.

A :

Apply Butox/Taktic/Cypermethrin @ 3ml/liter of water over the body of affected animals. The same solution should be sprayed in the animal premises. Avoid spraying the medicine in mangers. Animal should not lick the medicine during application.


Q.2 :

There is problem of blood in milk recently after parturition. What is the treatment for  it ?

A :

Some time it is physiological and automatically resolves within few days. Milk sample can also be sent to the mastitis lab. In the department of Clinical Veterinary Medicine for cultural sensitivity examination.


Q.3 :

My buffalo is suffering from diarrhea from last two months. Initially diarrhea was intermittent. Milk yield and appetite is normal.

A :

Get the dung sample tested for worms and a disease known as “Johne’s disease”. If the report shows Johne’s disease, isolate the animal so that feeding and watering of the animals is not with other animals.


Q.4 :

There is problem of diarrhea in calves at our farm. What should be done to control/minimize it ?

A :

New born calf should be fed first milk “colostrum” within 6-12 hour after birth @ 10% of the body weight of the calf. Calves should be kept in comfortable environment. Clean the calf shed daily with Chlorasol disinfectant or any other suitable disinfectant. Diarrheic calves should be kept separate from healthy calves. Diarrheic calves should be treated with parenteral/oral fluids, antibiotics, herbal antidiarrheals under the supervision of a veterinarian.


Q.5 :

Milk yield of the cow has been reduced for the past few days. How to increase it?

A :

First of all send the milk sample to Vety Hospital for diagnosis of infection in the udder. After that deworm the animal with broad spectrum dewormers like albendazole, fenbendazole, ivermectin to make the animal free from endoparasites in consultation with the Veterinarian. Provide good quality feed including green fodder, concentrate and mineral mixture as per the milk yield of the animal.


 

Veterinary Toxicology


Q.1 :

What should be done if an animal has consumed a poisonous substance?

A :

If an animal is suspected of consuming something poisonous, local veterinarian should be contacted/consulted immediately. Samples can be submitted in the lab by qualified veterinarians only.


Q.2 :

Which are the potentially harmful substances that can poison the animals?

A :

  • Medicines including pain killers, cold and flu preparations and antidepressants.
  • Insecticides such as flea and tick preparations and insect baits. Some species of animals can be particularly sensitive to certain types of insecticides, so it is vital to follow label instructions exactly.
  • Common household cleaners such as bleaches, detergents and disinfectants that may cause gastrointestinal distress and irritation to the skin, eyes or respiratory tract.

Q.3 :

What information should be collected while investigating a toxicity case?

A :

During toxicological investigations, the following information can be of utmost help:

  1. The number of animals in a herd/group that may have been exposed.
  2. The number of animals exhibiting toxicity symptoms or lethality.
  3. The species/breed of affected animals along with their age, sex and pregnancy status.
  4. The clinical signs exhibited by the animals viz. body temperature, color of stool, blood and urine, physical condition and neurological symptoms.
  5. History of feeding patterns of the animal along with any previous ailments.
  6. Circumstantial evidence should also be obtained for ruling out any malicious causes of poisoning.

Q.4 :

What are the symptoms/signs of nitrate toxicity in cattle?

A :

In acute nitrate poisoning, the cattle are often observed to be normal one day and dead the next day. This occurs within 30 minutes to 4 hours of ingestion of plants high in nitrates. Initial signs include salivation followed by frequent urination. These are followed by difficult breathing, increased respiratory rate and dark brown or "chocolate" colored blood and mucous membranes. The animals become weak and reluctant to move and may exhibit convulsions before death. Exposed pregnant cattle usually abort soon after recovering.


Q.5 :

What are the main causes of nitrate toxicosis?

A :

The most important cause of nitrate/nitrite toxicity is the presence of high levels of nitrates (or nitrites) in the feed or water. These compounds are converted to nitrites in the rumen of cattle, which are absorbed across the rumen wall into the blood stream. The nitrite in blood reacts with hemoglobin to form a compound, methemoglobin, which lacks the oxygen-carrying capacity. Thus, the animal dies because of oxygen deficit to the vital organs of the body.


Q.6 :

Where do the nitrates come from?

A :

Nitrates are concentrated in water sources from fertilizer run-offs, decaying organic matter, animal wastes or other sources of nitrogen. The nitrates are generally higher after periods of excess runoff after fertilization or after heavy rainfalls. Occasionally, deep, drilled wells can have high levels of nitrates. In addition, certain weeds such as Johnson grass and nightshade are also high in nitrates. Almost any crop can have high nitrate levels however, Sudan grass hay and oat hay are more likely to have levels of nitrates that are potentially toxic.


Q.7 :

When is the nitrate toxicity suspected?

A :

Nitrate toxicity problem should be suspected in cases of acute animal death after a recent change in feeding practices (oat hay, Sudan grass hay, etc), change in water supply, moving from one field to another, etc. However, differential diagnosis should be done ruling out other common causes of acute death in cattle, such as red water disease, anaplasmosis and other toxicities. For confirmation of nitrate toxicity, rumen samples, feed samples as well as water samples are routinely analyzed.


Q.8 :

What is the treatment of nitrate toxicity?

A :

The animal should be provided veterinary aid immediately. The antidote for nitrate toxicity is methylene blue, a chemical that restores the hemoglobin content of blood. However, the efficacy of this antidote is higher if administered in the early stages of toxicosis. The survival rate is indirectly proportional to the time spent in seeking veterinary aid.


Q.9 :

How can nitrate toxicity be prevented?

A :

Under normal circumstance, animals usually do not consume weeds high in nitrate content. These weeds are taken up by animals only during periods of drought or due to lack of quality forage. Therefore, thorough testing of feed and water is essential in drought and high-risk areas. In addition, animals should be exposed to these forages gradually over a period of time.


Q.10 :

What are the main routes of exposure to pesticides in animals?

A :

Animals can be exposed to pesticides either by absorption through the skin or eyes (dermally), through the mouth (orally) or through the lungs (inhalation).


Q.11 :

Which are the most commonly used insecticides?

A :

Pesticide poisoning cases usually involve either organophosphate or carbamate insecticides. Some commonly used organophosphate and carbamate insecticides are enlisted below: Organophosphates Carbamates Malathion Sevin Parathion Carbaryl Chlorpyrifos Carbofuran Monocrotophos Triazophos Fenamiphos


Q.12 :

What are some common signs associated with organophosphate or carbamate insecticide poisoning?

A :

Mild exposures:

  • fatigue, dizziness, loss of appetite, diarrhea
  • blurred vision associated with excessive lacrimation
  • contracted eye pupils
  •  excessive sweating and salivation
  •  slow heart beat (< 50 per minute)
  • rippling of surface muscles just under the skin.

Moderately severe: all the signs found in mild poisonings, but in addition, the animal:

  • is unable to walk;
  • exhibits marked constriction of the pupils (pinpoint pupils);
  • exhibits muscle twitching;
  • has involuntary urination and bowel movement.

Severe poisonings are indicated by incontinence, unconsciousness and seizures. The order in which these symptoms appear may vary, depending on how contact is made with the insecticide. If the product is swallowed, stomach and other abdominal manifestations commonly appear first; if it is absorbed through the skin, gastric and respiratory symptoms tend to appear at the same time.


Q.13 :

Which pyrethroid insecticides are commonly used in agriculture and Veterinary Practices?

A :

Some of the commonly used pyrethroid insecticides are:
Allethrin                    Cyfluthrin
Cypermethrin                            Deltamethrin
Esfenvalerate                           Fenvalerate
Flucythrinate                            Fluvalinate
Permethrin                               Resmethrin
Tetramethrin                             Tralomethrin 


Q.14 :

What should be done in a suspected case of pesticide poisoning in animals?

A :

A veterinarian should be immediately consulted and the following information should be made available:

  1. Trade name of the pesticide ingested/inhaled.
  2. Estimated amount of toxin ingested.
  3. Time lapsed since the ingestion of poison
  4. Signs of toxicity produced - vomition, salivation, convulsions etc.
  5. Gross observations - such as color of gums, respiratory rate, heart rate, body temperature.

Q.15 :

What is the need to mix whole blood tubes or separate the serum immediately after collection?

A :

The EDTA or heparin added in whole blood tubes to prevent blood clotting does not automatically blend with the blood, so unmixed samples will still clot. During cold weather or if packed in ice, clots in serum tubes will hemolyze, thus altering test results.


Q.16 :

Which are the plants that are toxic to animals and shouldn’t be kept around the house?

A :

The common plants which are poisonous to animals are:

  1. Lantana
  2. Oleander/ Kaner
  3. Lilies
  4. Castor Bean
  5. Marijuana
  6. Kalanchoe
  7. Sago Palm
  8. Amaryllis
  9. Tulip
  10. Datura
  11. Azalea/ Rhododendron
  12. Chrysanthemum

Q.17 :

What are the most common food hazards for the pets?

A :

The following foods should never be given to pet animals:

  • Alcoholic beverages
  • Chocolate (all forms)
  • Coffee (all forms)
  • Fatty foods
  • Nuts, Moldy or spoiled foods
  • Onions, onion powder
  • Raisins and grapes
  • Salt, Yeast dough, Garlic
  • Products sweetened with xylitol

 

Parasite Infestation in Animals


Q.1 :

What are various types of parasites affecting animals?

A :

Type of parasite

Name of parasite

Animals affected

 I.H./Vector

Trematodes (Flukes)

Fasciola sp. (Liver fluke)
Amphistome sp. (Rumen fluke)
Prosthogonimus sp. (Oviductal fluke)

Cow, Buffalo, Sheep, Goat, Poultry

Through snails etc

Cestodes (Tapeworms)

Moniezia sp., Stilesia sp., Dipylidium caninum, Raillietina sp., Taenia sp. etc.

Cow, Buffalo, Sheep Goat, Dogs, Poultry

 Through grain mites, 
beetles ants, flies, earthworm
etc

Nematodes (Roundworms) Toxocara sp., Strongyles, Strongyloides sp. Ascaridia galli, Oxyuris sp. etc. Cow, Buffalo, Sheep, Goat, Dogs, Poultry Contaminated feed and water and arthropods Blood protozoa Trypanosoma evansi Cow, Buffalo, Horse, Dogs Through flies Blood protozoa Babesia sp. Cow, Buffalo, Horse, Dogs Through hard tick Blood protozoa Theileria annulata Cow, Buffalo Through hard tick Blood protozoa Anaplasma marginale Cow, Buffalo Through flies, hard tick Blood protozoa Ehrlichia sp., Hepatozoon canis Dog Through hard tick Intestinal protozoa Coccidia Cow, Buffalo, Sheep, Goat, Dogs, Poultry Contaminated feed and water Arthropods Hard tick, soft tick, flies, lice, fleas, mites Cow, Buffalo, Sheep, Goat, Dogs, Poultry


Q.2 :

What are the common symptoms of parasitic diseases?

A :

Reduced or no feed and water intake, dullness, rough body coat, fever, diarrhea, loss of production (milk, meat/wool etc.), and presence of vectors/intermediate hosts.


Q.3 :

How to diagnose these various parasitic diseases?

A :

For diagnosis of the parasitic infections/infestations examination of faecal, blood and skin scrapings is necessary. This should be done in a well equipped laboratory viz. Department of Veterinary Parasitology (Ph.: 0161-2414029) and Clinical Diagnostic Laboratory, Teaching Veterinary Clinical Complex (Ph.: 0161-2414052).


Q.4 :

How to send the samples for diagnosis of various parasitic diseases?

A :

Blood should be sent well mixed in EDTA or methanol fixed blood smear can be sent; faeces should be sent in 10% formalin and skin scrapings in 10% potassium hydroxide solution. With any one of the above sample, information like type of animal; age of animal; sex of animal; clinical symptoms etc should be provided.


Q.5 :

What are the clinical signs of (surra) and what is the causative organism?

A :

Surra is caused by a blood protozoa, Trypanasoma evansi and the signs are as follows: Horse: Intermittent fever, emaciation, oedema varying from urticarial plaques on the neck and flanks to legs and lower parts of the body, haemorrhages at the junction of skin and mucus membrane especially at nostrils, eyes and anus. Dogs: Fever, marked oedema, corneal opacity, change in voice and death. Cows and Buffaloes: Dullness, sleepiness, rise in temperature may be seen, staggering gait, eyes staring wide open, hard and noisy breathing, circling movements, nervous excitement, hitting of head against hard objects, apparent blindness, stamping of feet, bellowing, groaning, frequent micturition, profuse salivation, muscle twitching, shivering of body and coma and death.


Q.6 :

What are the clinical signs of babesiosis and red water fever?

A :

Cows and Buffaloes: High grade fever, haemoglobinuria, profound anaemia and profuse diarrhoea followed by marked constipation and death. Horses: High grade fever, anaemia, listlessness, depression, haemoglobinuria (may be present or absent) and posterior paralysis (may be present or absent) and death. Dogs: High grade fever, malaise, listlessness, depression, disinclination to move, anorexia, jaundice and pale mucus membranes and death.


Q.7 :

What are the clinical signs of Theileriosis?

A :

Cows and Buffaloes: Marked rise in temperature, depression, emaciation, lacrymation, nasal discharge and swelling of superficial lymph nodes and death.


Q.8 :

What are the clinical signs of Anaplasmosis?

A :

Anorexia, high fever, jaundice, severe anaemia, dysponea and death.


Q.9 :

What are the important signs of coccidiosis?

A :

Sheep and goats: Young animals up to the age of 4-6 months are affected; brownish to yellowish green diarrhoea which may be streaked with blood, abdominal pain, anaemia, inappetence, weakness and loss of weight and death.
Cows and Buffaloes: Young animals up to the age of 3 weeks to 6 months are affected; abdominal pain, foul smelling diarrhoea with or without blood and masses of mucus and clots of blood, rough coat, droopy ears, listlessness, partial paralysis of anal sphincter, weakness, rectal tenesmus, anaemia, anorexia, rapid respiration, convulsions and emaciation and death.
Dogs: Pups are severely affected; there is weakness, rough hair coat, emaciation and diarrhea with or without blood and death.
Poultry: Diarrhoea with or without blood and mucus casts, stunted growth, decline in egg production, listlessness, anorexia, anaemia, dehydration and death.


Q.10 :

What are the measures to control snail borne diseases?

A :

Ponds/lakes etc. should be cleaned from time to time and fenced.

  1. Animals should not be allowed to drink water from snail contaminated ponds/lakes etc.
  2. Dung of animals should be put in dung pits, to destroy the eggs of trematode parasites.
  3. Number of snails can be reduced by fishes, crabs, ducks etc. which feed on these snails.
  4. Herbal control by plant extracts of Neem, Aak, Datura and Safeda etc.
  5. Chemicals like sodium pentachlorophenate, copper sulphate etc. can be used.

Q.11 :

What are general measures to control parasitic diseases?

A :

  1. Provide clean water and good quality fodder to animals
  2. Maintain good hygienic conditions in the shed as regular and proper cleaning of the shed
  3. Isolation of the diseased animal from the healthy ones and their proper treatment.
  4. Giving periodic preventive medication to all apparently healthy animals
  5. Vaccination may be done.
  6. Control the intermediate hosts/vectors in the life cycle of parasites using suitable drugs.

Q.12 :

How do the arthropods harm the animals?

A :

Annoyance, blood loss, lower hide value, myiasis, skin inflammation, allergy, production losses, and act as vectors of economically important infectious diseases.

 


Q.13 :

What is myiasis?

A :

Myiasis is an animal disease caused by parasitic dipterous fly larvae feeding on the host's necrotic or living tissue.


Q.14 :

What are the common ways to control myiasis?

A :

  1. Control the population of adult flies.
  2. Eliminate the larvae by applying pressure around the lesion and use of forceps.
  3. The wound must be cleaned and dressed. 
  4. Treat livestock with the use of slow release boluses containing ivermectin which can provide long term protection against the larvae development.

Q.15 :

How to control tick infestation in animals?

A :

Application of acaricides like amitraz, malathion, flumethrin, cypermethrin, pestoben etc after consulting with a qualified veterinarian.


Q.16 :

What is mange?

A :

Mange is a contagious skin disease caused by parasitic mites. Commonly sarcoptic, psoroptic and demodectic (or red mange) mange is seen in cattle, buffalo, sheep, goat, dog etc.


Q.17 :

How to control mange?

A :

  1. Isolate the affected animals from other animals
  2. Thoroughly clean their bedding and sheds.
  3. Treat the affected animals by chemotherapy viz use of ivermectin, topical application of formamidines etc is effective.

Q.18 :

What is pediculosis?

A :

The term pediculosis is used to denote lice infestation in animals and birds.


Q.19 :

What are the effects of lice on their hosts?

A :

Irritation, restlessness, self inflicted injury, reduced feeding, inappropriate sleep and production loss.


Q.20 :

How to control pediculosis?

A :

In poultry, control is achieved by dusts or sprays of carbaryl or coumaphos, toxaphene, hexachlorocyclohexane, melathion etc. In cattle or large ruminants, crotoxyphos, coumaphos, cruformate, farphur, ronnel, cypermethrin, malathion etc spray is effective.


Q.21 :

What are the parasitic diseases transmitted by fleas?

A :

Fleas act as vector the diseases like Dipylium caninum, Dipetalonema reconditum etc.


Q.22 :

How to control fleas?

A :

Flea collars are very popular means of control. A combination of dichlorovos and fenitrothion is effective for dogs. Hexachlorocyclohexane is useful in dogs. Corticosteroids may be used to reduce pruritus in animal.


Q.23 :

What is Ehrlichiosis?

A :

Ehrlichiosis is caused by Ehrlichia caves in dog. The pet show the symptom of fever, other non specific symptom, epistaxis,nasal bleeding. Have bllod examination and contact your Vet for treatment.