Artificial Insemination in cattle and buffaloes


Q.1 :

What is the importance of Artificial Insemination (AI)?

A :

AI is the technique in which semen is collected from the superior bulls and introduced into female reproductive tract at proper time with the help of instruments. The major advantage of AI over natural mating is that it permits the dairy farmer to use top proven sires for genetic improvement of his herd and control of venereal diseases. AI is also of tremendous value in making optimal use of different sires and enables dairy farmer to breed individual cows to selected sires according to their breeding goal.


Q.2 :

What should be the weight and age of cows and buffalo heifers at the time of AI?

A :

The weight and age of cow heifer should be 15-18 months and 275-300 Kg and that of buffalo heifers should be 26-30 months, 300-325 Kg at the time of first AI.


Q.3 :

How the animals can be detected in heat?

A :

The animals should be watched carefully for heat symptoms for half an hour atleast in the morning (5-7 AM) and evening (between 8-10 PM). The common heat symptoms in dairy animals are mounting behavior, mucus discharge from genitalia, restlessness, swelling of vulva, loss of appetite, bellowing, frequent urination and fall in milk yield.


Q.4 :

How the quality of semen can be assured?

A :

Quality semen should be procured from the well established breeding centers and stored properly in liquid nitrogen containers. These containers should be regularly watched for gas level. The semen should be thawed at 30-35oC for 30 sec just before loading to AI gun and insemination. Loaded gun should be protected from direct sun light and hygienic conditions should be maintained during AI.


Q.5 :

What is the ideal time of AI?

A :

As a thumb rule, animals coming in heat in the morning should be inseminated in the same evening and those coming in heat in the evening should be inseminated in the next morning. The animals remaining in heat for 24-36 hour should be inseminated 12-18 hrs after the onset of heat symptoms at least two times at an interval of 12 hrs apart.


Q.6 :

What is the ideal time for animal to get pregnant after calving?

A :

Following parturition the cow or buffalo should conceive between 80-100 days to maintain the calving interval of nearly one year.


Q.7 :

What is the ideal time for pregnancy diagnosis after insemination?

A :

The inseminated cow or buffalo not showing heat symptoms should be examined for pregnancy diagnosis two months after the AI.


 

Breeding solutions:

Conception failure or infertility


Q.1 :

Why a cow/buffalo fails to get pregnant after repeated services/inseminations?

A :

This could be due to:

  • Uterine infections
  • Hormonal aberrations
  • Nutritional deficiencies 
  • Wrong time of AI and use of poor quality semen

Q.2 :

Why some cows show heat symptom for 5-6 days?

A :

This could be due to hormonal imbalance leading to delayed ovulation or formation of follicular cyst on the ovary. To diagnose the condition, the animal needs to be examined by veterinarian for status of genital organs particularly ovaries. Ultrasonography of ovaries and hormonal analysis of blood is also carried to diagnosis the condition and to decide line of treatment.


Q.3 :

Why a cow/buffalo is not cured for dirty discharge even after intrauterine medications?

A :

The cervico-vaginal mucus discharge of that animal should be tested for microbial isolation and drug sensitivity test. Depending upon the report, the treatment should be done.


Q.4 :

What is the relation of post service bleeding & conception?

A :

This type of bleeding is normal physiological in some of crossbred cows and is known as metestral bleeding. There is no relationship between metestral bleeding and conception failure. Rather this is a positive sign indicating that the animal has ovulated. The animal needs to be examined thoroughly to find the exact cause of conception failure.


Q.5 :

What are the causes of abortions in cattle & buffalo?

A :

Abortion can occur in dairy animals due to following causes:

  • Deficiency of progesterone in early gestation.
  • Bacterial, viral and protozoan infections e.g. Brucellosis, Leptospirosis, Vibriosis, IBR– IPV, Trichomoniasis.
  • Feeding of toxic plants and fungus infested feed.
  • High fever.
  • Injury to the abdomen.
  • Misuse of drugs/hormones.
  • Infected animal should be segregated and handled separately away from the healthy animals.

Q.6 :

What is anestrus?

A :

It is the inability of the animal to show signs of heat due to inactive ovaries. It can be of different types like true anestrus, summer anestrus, postpartum anestrus and silent heat


Q.7 :

What are the main causes of anestrus?

A :

The different causes of anestrus are poor nutrition, hormonal imbalance, infectious diseases, anatomical defects, lactation, suckling and poor management.


Q.8 :

Why do some animals fail to come into heat for long period after parturition?

A :

This problem is more common in high yielding animals because a lot of energy is required for the parturition process as well as production after delivery. So animal looses weight. Therefore, good management through proper nutrition is required to meet the energy status of the animal and restore the reproductive performance of high yielding dairy animals.


Q.9 :

Why dairy animals especially buffaloes do not show estrus in summer season?

A :

The main reason is due to heat stress and lack of green fodder availability. Farmers are advised to reduce stress by keeping animals in shady areas especially under trees, providing fans/coolers and clean drinking water facilities in the shed. Provision of green fodder (Hay/silage can be used as an alternative in summer months) and allowing the animals for wallowing in ponds especially to buffaloes are also helpful to reduce the effect of summer stress.


Q.10 :

In certain buffaloes some mucus discharge is observed however, no prominent signs of

A :

In this condition the animal has functional ovaries, comes in heat regularly but it does not show the external behavioral signs of heat. Animal is usually cyclic and the owner should go for mating of their animals. Farmers are also advised to keep a close observation on the affected animals.


Q.11 :

Should hormonal therapy be used for onset of estrus?

A :

Hormones are effective only if the nutrition is balanced. Therefore, farmers are advised to check the nutrition of their animals regularly, before giving any other treatment. The hormonal treatment should always be administered in consultation with veterinary doctor.


Q.12 :

Most buffalo heifers do not come in estrus at less than 3 years of age?

A :

Generally such animals have a poor body weight. Normal body weight should be around 275 300 kg in case of buffalo heifers for onset of estrus. Therefore, feed good balanced diet as well as go for deworming of animals in order to have early onset of estrus.


HEAT DETECTION DEMANDS TIME AND ATTENTION FOR SUCCESSFUL A.I. PROGRAM

Heat (estrus) is simply the period of time when a cow or heifer is sexually receptive and signals that an egg, ready to be fertilized, is about to be released. It normally occurs every 18 to 24 days. In a natural breeding program, the bull is the one that determines when a cow is in heat. In an AI program, you make the decisions.
Heat detection is just another step in the more intensive management system that is part of artificial insemination. It is not difficult, but it does demand both time and attention. If you want your AI program to be successful, you cannot cut corners here.
You have to learn what the bull knows instinctively, but once you have that knowledge, you can easily get the equipment needed for detection eyesight, a pencil and a notebook. Your cows must be identified, too. Ear tags, neck chains or number brands will work, just as long as they are easy to read and can be read from a distance.
Essentially, successful heat detection begins with understanding one simple fact: there is only one sure sign of heat -- a cow stands while other animals mount her. This is appropriately termed standing heat.

Your Responsibility
It is recommended that one person be responsible for heat (estrous) detection. For the sake of discussion, we are going to assume that that person is you.
During the time you are detecting, neither you nor the cows should be distracted in any way. Heat detection periods should not be scheduled to coincide with feeding. Success requires absolute, and total attention.
Because cows' responses can be modified by disease, hunger, thirst, fatigue, or fear, it is up to you to make sure the cows are healthy and content and in a familiar environment. They should be given time to get used to the breeding pasture before the breeding season. The cows should be familiar with you and not afraid of your presence. When you detect, it is important to move through the herd quietly.
Adequate facilities vary from operation to operation. The area for detection should be large enough to allow the cows to mingle freely, but small enough so that all of them can be watched at once.
Of course cows have to be cycling, which means they must be healthy and have been receiving a good level of nutrition. Age and weight determine when heifers first cycle, but 13 to 14 months of age is a good rule of thumb. Cows need about 60 days after calving before rebreeding; first calf heifers may require a longer period of time, particularly if the nutrition program is less than optimal.
Be aware that weather changes and temperature extremes can cause cows to exhibit estrus differently (or less noticeably). You can't do much about either of those factors, but you should watch even more carefully at those times.
All told, about five percent of a normal cycling beef herd should be showing heat (estrus) on any given day.

The Routine
You will need to spend at least one hour, twice a day, every day, heat detecting. Ideally, you will heat detect first thing in the morning and then again late in the evening. Both research and practical experience indicate this pattern of visual heat detection is well worth the time invested.
Data collected at the Meat Animal Research Center in Nebraska show that 58 percent of the cows in heat were spotted with one morning observation. Only 28 percent were found if the daily check was at noon; 49 percent were detected by checking only in the evening. With two checks, one first thing in the morning and the other late in the evening, 94 percent were detected.
A Cornell University study yielded similar patterns: from 6 a.m. to noon, 22 percent of the cows showed heat; from noon to 6 p.m., 10 percent did; from 6 p.m. to midnight, 25 percent; and from midnight to 6 a.m., 43 percent.
Accuracy of detection increases with frequency of observation, but the twice-a-day routine is practical and produces acceptable results.
Incidentally, technology does exist to heat detect electronically all day, every day. In a study at Colorado State University, researchers were able to identify more cows in estrus with the HeatWatch Electronic Heat Detection System (HW) than with twice-a-day visual heat detection.
In a nutshell, the HW system is an integrated electronic hardware and software system designed to detect, transmit, and record each time a cow is mounted during behavioral estrus. A transmitter mounted to the tailhead of cows records the frequency, time and duration of each mount. Using these real time observations, researchers discovered more cows in the study (235 head in two different herds) initiated standing estrus between 6 a.m. and noon than during any other six hour period of the day. Moreover, 28 percent of the unsynchronized cattle in the study displayed mounting behavior only in the darkness between 9 p.m. and 5 a.m.
All of this essentially means that timing is of great importance in a successful AI program. The average time a female is in standing heat is about 12 to 18 hours; cows usually ovulate 25 to 30 hours after first standing. The life of an egg, once released, is six to 10 hours.
On the other side of the fertilization equation, sperm cells have to be in the reproductive tract for about five to six hours before they are capable of fertilization. So, in an ideal world, insemination should take place six to eight hours before ovulation.
Traditionally, cows and heifers are inseminated about 12 hours after they are first observed standing. Those standing in the morning are bred that night; those standing in the evening are held over and then inseminated first thing the next morning. It works well with the twice-a-day routine established for detection.
Although conception rates will not drop significantly if insemination times aren't exact, programs with consistently good results tend to inseminate close to the prescribed times. However, there is research to support that some flexibility in the breeding schedule can be economically feasible, especially if you hire an outside inseminator. In that case, many producers achieve success with once-a-day breeding. We suggest you have an AI professional advise you and that you consider all factors when making this sort of decision.

Secondary Heat Signs
When you are detecting for estrus, remember the primary sign is standing heat. There are, however, secondary signs you should know and note. They can appear as early as 48 hours before standing heat.
A cow coming into heat may mount other cows, and she may urinate frequently. She may also lay her head over the backs of her herdmates. Nervousness, walking the fence, bawling, spooking, butting other cows and standing while others are lying down are other possible signs. In addition, a cow coming into heat can be off her feed. She may not let her milk down, and her calf may be protesting. The lips of her vulva can also be red and slightly swollen; she may have watery mucous hanging in strings from her vulva. She may pass a lot of mucous, which is most obvious when she is mounting another cow.
Cows in heat, or about to come into heat, tend to congregate. Because mounting activity increases when more than one cow is in heat, it is not a bad idea to keep a cow in the herd that is standing until it's time for her to be inseminated. If you do that, keep in mind that footing must be good.
When a cow is in heat, she's likely to have mud on her rump and sides, courtesy of the cows that have been riding her. For the same reason, the hair on her tail-head can be rough and matted (this will be most noticeable after heat - too late to be effective). Often you will have bull calves in the herd attempting to mount her as well.
After heat, her vaginal mucous will be thick and rubbery; one to three days after heat, you may notice a bloody discharge. This is no indication that she is or is not pregnant; it only means she's been in heat. If you failed to observe heat and see a bloody discharge, write down the cow's number and the date in your notebook so you can pay special attention to her in about 15 days.
Remember that the cow that rides may or may not be in heat and that the secondary signs vary so much in length and intensity that they are not reliable in determining when an animal should be inseminated. They are helpful, though. Once you've observed any of these secondary heat signs, make it easy on yourself by using your pencil and notebook to record them. Don't trust your memory, write it down.
By the way, records also help in heat detection. Accurate information compiled and written on heat expectancy charts helps you anticipate when cows are most likely to come into heat.

Detection Aids
In heat detection, observation is essential but there are times when a cow either will not stand or will stand for such a short period of time that you miss her. That's when heat detection aids come in handy. Just remember they do not replace careful observation.
The chin ball marker is one such aid. It is a device worn beneath a detector animal's chin that works like a large ball point pen, leaving a mark on the back of the cow that has been mounted.
Detector animals were originally bulls that had been altered to prevent their ability to breed. Alterations include removal of the penis, relocating the penis to the side, suturing back the penis, and blocking the tip. These bulls retain their sexual drive but can't have sexual contact. Vasectomized bulls also can be used. They are sterile; however, because they can have sexual contact, they can spread disease.
In terms of numbers, herds with high cycling activity need a detector animal for every 30 breeding females. In less frequently cycling herds, a 1:40 or 1:50 ratio is acceptable.
Another popular aid, KaMar Heat Mount Detectors, are used successfully in a number of AI programs, particularly when they're used in conjunction with detector animals. It is a white plastic device that is glued to the tailhead of any cow eligible for breeding in the next 21 days. Prolonged pressure from a mounting animal's brisket turns the device red.
The KaMar detector must be completely red, not just partly red, to give an accurate indication that a cow stood to be mounted. Keep in mind that the KaMar detector is not recommended when cattle are pastured in lots containing low tree branches or heavy brush since rubbing could cause a false reading or tear the KaMar detector off.
A more recent development is a similar system that goes by the name of Bovine Beacon. It is also applied to the tailhead. The design and technology behind it mean that a single mount will break the chemiluminescent ampule contained inside, giving off a bright red glow that can be seen in daylight or darkness.
As mentioned previously, electronic heat detection systems are also taking root in some programs as an effective heat detection tool. Once you have done your detecting, the cows you have determined to be in heat can be quietly moved from the herd to the holding area near the breeding facilities.

Silent Heat Problems
In this condition animal will not show behavioral signs of estrus although the physiological symptoms of heat will be present. Although the general pattern of sexual behavior is almost similar in cattle and buffaloes but the intensity of expression of behavioral signs of estrus in buffaloes is markedly less pronounced especially during summer months as the buffaloes are relatively inefficient to maintain their thermoregulation under increased environmental temperature and at high relative humidity. So due to this reason buffaloes are in constant heat stress during summers which causes the suppression of behavioral signs of estrus. The behavioral sign of heat such as bellowing may be absent and the heat is therefore termed as silent. In addition to this the other behavioral signs of estrus such as mounting to fellow animals and allowing other animals to mount, restlessness may also be expressed in much diminished intensity.
The vulva of buffalo in heat will be slightly swollen and slight radish in colour as well as a string of mucus found hanging from the vulva or present inside vulval lips is a sure sign of heat in summer season. However the behavioral signs of estrus are more pronounced during cooler hours of the day especially during early morning and late evening. So the buffalo in estrus can be detected by parading a teaser bull during these periods and also by close observation by a trained person during early morning hours. The incidence of silent heat has been found to be more in cows and buffaloes, which were neither allowed for grazing nor given any exercise, and being kept on concrete floors. The animals that are not given sufficient protective measures from the extremes of the weather are most sufferers.
In cattle the incidence of silent heat is found to be more in high producing cows while in heifers the silent heat is highest in those heifers that are low in position in the social hierarchy of the herd. If   grouping of cows have been made without considering the ranks of cows in the herd this will results in decrease in efficiency of heat detection as the submissive cows may avoid mounting to dominant cows. In addition to this also the incidence has been found to be high when group size is very large in which there is ongoing social conflicts and that will result in to instability to social hierarchy.

Solutions to Overcome Silent Heat Problem
This problem can be overcome by removing different constraints such as allowing animals for grazing or left them loose for few hours where the animals have been tied. There should be provision of non-slippery or kuccha floors to facilitate the mounting activity of the cows that are in estrus. In summer season water should be sprinkled over the body of the animals for 5-10 minutes twice or thrice daily or allow them to wallow for two hours daily in the morning and in the evening to alleviate the impact of heat stress. At large organized dairy farm mistress cooling system installed inside the shed is found to be very effective in maintaining normal estrus behavior of buffaloes and cross-bred cows. If the roof are made up of asbestos or iron sheet then spread some paddy straw over it make wet by sprinkling of water. Animal should be fed green fodder and the feeding must be done during cool hours of the day. During summer the feed intake of the animal is reduce so the quality of the ration should be improved in order to fulfill their physiological needs. In addition to this there should be improved or efficient methods of heat detection. A combination of methods is better than relying on a single method of heat detection. Visual observation should be performed by trained persons during cooler hours of the day especially during early morning and late evening as the behavioral signs of estrus are more pronounced during this period. Parading of teasure /vasectomized bull during early morning and late evening.

Heat Detection
A bull will always notice a cow in heat and will serve her if there are no boundaries between the bull and cow. Many cows have heat signs that are difficult to notice for humans. The heat signs that humans can see are:

  • The animal becomes restless, sometimes separating itself from the rest of the herd, walking along fences to seek a bull.
  • The animal tries to mount other animals, sniffs them and is sniffed at by others (see figure)
  • The animal bellows in order to attract a bull (the Zebu does not do this).
  • Standing heat: the cow stands still when she is mounted by other animals (standing is the only reliable practical test of heat, see figure).
  • Signs that the animal has been mounted by others, such as mud on its flanks, bare patches of skin on the hook or the pin bone, ruffled hair on the back etc. (see figure).
  • The lips of the vulva turn red and are somewhat swollen (see figure).
  • There is a discharge of clear, thin mucus hanging from the vulva or adhering to the tail (see figure).


The average heat period lasts about 11 hours, so in order to detect heat you should check the cows at least 3 times a day: early in the morning, in the afternoon and late in the evening (spend about 20 minutes each time). Cows should be calm (not distracted by feeding or so).